Georgia is located in the European and Asian part of the continent of Europe and Asia, located in the eastern part of the Black Sea, in the south of the watershed Kedi in the Central Caucasus, Likhi Ridge in the middle of the country. The oldest man’s trace “Zezva” and “Mzia” dates back to 1800,000 years in Georgia. There are also 8000 years of wine culture certificates found in Georgia, which gives the name “Country of the Country of Wine”. The plant world (flora) of Georgia is rich and diverse. It counts about 13 300 species, including 4225 seed plants, 75 outlets, 600 moods, 650 peasants, 5000 fungi and 2000 algae.
The animal world (fauna) is quite diverse. There are more than 100 species of mammals, more than 330 birds, 48 reptiles, 11 amphibians, 160 fish and thousands of invertebrates. Georgian architecture is distinguished by its diversity and peculiarity. Every corner of Georgia had its characteristic architectural style and residential houses differed sharply from each other. This distinction is gradually decreasing: European style is widely spread in all regions of Georgia. Nevertheless, the difference between the mountain and the bar regions is still felt between Western and Eastern Georgia.
Georgian traditional kitchen is one of the richest in the world. Unlike the national taste, the Georgian cuisine was not only maintained but also widely spread beyond Georgia. In the past there was a marked difference between the kitchens of individual corners of Georgia. At present, this difference is almost no longer and the dishes which are not characteristic of the area are widely spread in any corner.
The history of wine originates from ancient times. The development of winemaking in Georgia reached the peak of gold.
The history of the wine began after the man not only tasted the fruit of the vine, but also his choice of choice. It was about 10,000 years ago when the last ice age was over and the climate was formed that is on earth today. When the man found the fermentation of the grape fruit, he was brought to his home instead of extracting it in the woods. A good variety has been selected, and the vicinity of the vine is done.
Georgian wine is one of the oldest in Europe. The earliest marks of viticulture and wine production indicate about the existence of wine and vine culture in Georgia about 7000-8000 years ago, which gives our country the status of vines and wine.
Georgian wine is one of the oldest in Europe. The earliest marks found today are viticulture and wine production on the existence of wine culture in Georgia. 7000 years ago, which grants the status of Georgian wine to the country.
Kakheti is among the most famous wine-growing regions of Georgia, followed by Kartli, Imereti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti as well as Abkhazia.
Viticulture and Winemaking
Viticulture and winemaking – the oldest and most important field of agriculture of Georgia. The History of Vinegar is closely related to the history of Georgian nation. The creative nature and special love of our nation are expressed in Georgian culture, traditional customs, architecture, ornaments, wounds, painting, poetry, singing and other works of art.
Georgia is considered the winery is one of the oldest place of high-quality wine production zone in the world, which is confirmed, wild and cultural species of vine sorts of diversity, as well as ampelographic, paleo, historical, archaeological, ethnographic, philological, linguistic and other scientific studies, how Georgian and foreign researchers.
The vine is widely used in Georgia. They use the juice from the grapes, prepare the marshes, tatars and chisels, used as a sandwich, there are decorative varieties. Use for treatment: cardiovascular disease and lack of blood.
Georgia is considered to be one of the first centers of origin of Cultural Vine (Vitis viniferaL). Supposedly, BC Year The From the 6000-4000 years the vine is selected. From this, the cultural vine spread to the Mediterranean Sea, the Middle East and finally in America. Grapes are found in Iran, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. However, the age and variety of Georgian materials clearly demonstrate that the development of vine and wine in Georgia was 7,000 years ago or earlier. Archaeological waste of seeds is a factor confirming long vine cultivation in Georgia. In 1965 the joint expedition of the Simon Janashia State Museum and Tbilisi State University discovered the ancient settlement and ruins of the Shulaveri meadow (Kvemo Kartli), where they found a large amount of botanical material. The grapes were particularly important among the discovered materials. After analyzing, according to morphological and ampliometric data, Georgian and foreign scientists have established that it is a grape variety variety. As a result of carbohydrate analysis, the peaches are dated. 5000-7000 years old and is the oldest not only in Georgia, but in the whole world. According to the data of the Neolithic Stone Age, the culture of wine in the cultural and economic life of humanity is from Georgia. The oldest grapefruits found in Shulveri prove that at that time there was already a well developed winemaking culture in the Mtkvari Gorge in the south and central Georgia.
According to legend
According to legend, when the enlightener Saint Nino entered Georgia, he was holding a vine with his own hair. Since then, the vine is a symbol of a new religion. Also, the doors of the Georgian church were often made from vineyards. The use of grape vines was constructed during construction of church-monasteries. The Georgian people thought the vine was a “sacred” plant in the distant past. That is why it is natural for the Georgian people to pay special attention to the development of vine. In ancient times, one of the important reasons for the Georgian economy was viticulture. The neighboring countries were exporting wine from Georgia. From the invaders (Temur-Leng, Shah-Abbas), the purpose of cutting down the vineyards was the country’s economic downturn and reducing revenue.
The peak of Georgian viticulture was in the second half of the XIX century. Aleksandre Chavchavadze had a great contribution to the development of Georgian winemaking, which was owned by Teliani. That is where local, different wines (Rkatsiteli, Green, Saperavi) were made.
The world is known for about 4,000 grapes. In Georgia there are about 450 local varieties of vines, of which 66 varieties are included in the standard assortment, including 29 wines and 9 tablets. In his book “Economic History of Georgia” Ivane Javakhishvili has 413 species of vine.
Distinctive high quality Georgian wine grape varieties; Rokatsiteli, Green, Khikhvi, Kisi, Chinese, Goruli Green, Tsolikouri, Tsitska, Krakhuna, Saperavi, Tavkhereli, Shavkapito, Aleksandrouli, Mujuretuli, Dzvelshavi, Usagalauri, Otskhanuri Sapre, Ozheli, Chkhaveri, Aladasturi and others.
In Georgia, namely Mtskheta, Trialeti, Kakheti, Shida Kartli, Vani and other archeological excavations have been found in the muds, gold, silver, bronze, clay vessels that are dated to the III-II millennia BC.
The Georgian people have created culture and tradition of wine and wine consumption for centuries and developed technological techniques for making dry, naturally sweet and semi-sweet, dessert and sparkling, Kakhetian and Imeretian wines.
After the spread of Christianity, the Apostles of Jesus Christ, Andrew the First and Svimon Canaan, preached in Georgia, wines in church rituals and still take part, which indicates the discovery of a wine vessel found in archaeological excavations surrounding church-monasteries.
In addition to the aboriginal grape varieties in almost every corner of Georgia, there are widespread vines, which have found almost the second homeland in the ancient Georgian land: Aligote, Pinocchio, Chardonne, Caberne.
Kakheti (internal and external Kakheti)
Kakheti is the oldest and unique viticulture and winemaking region in Georgia. It is divided into two zones: internal and external Kakheti. In Kakheti there are more than 25 micro-zones, which are traditionally made of famous wines such as Tsinandali, Napareuli, Teliani, Akhasheni, Mukuzani, Kindzmarauli, Gurjaani, Kardenakhuli, Tibaani, Manavi Green, Khashmi Saperavi and others.
65-70% of Georgian vineyards are concentrated in Kakheti. The industrial vineyards that provide the best quality wines are cultivated in the rivers of Alazani and Iori basins at 400-700 meters above the sea level, forests of brown, meadow brown, grass, brown, meadow black and alluvial soils.
The climate in Kakheti is moderately warm, with an average annual temperature of 3500-42,000 per year, atmospheric precipitation is 400-800 mm, while the duration of the solar lantern is 2000-2200
The main direction of Kakheti
The main direction of Kakheti viticulture is white and red, dry, naturally sweet and dessert wines of high quality and quality table.
Wines with European type table white, high quality and most curious properties are made from Tsinandali, Napareuli, Gurjiani, Manavi, Sagarejo and other micro-zones, local unique white grape varieties: Rkatsiteli, Green Kakheti, Khikhvi, Kisi and other groves.
The red red dry, high quality and pleasant jasmine wines are made from Georgian grocery saplings grape saperavi, Kindzmarauli, Teliani, Akhasheni, Mukuzani, Khashmi, Sagarejo and other micro-districts of Kakheti.
In Kakheti is made of naturally sweet red wines, only in Akhasheni, Kindzmarauli and Mukuzani microcos. Here the microclimate, soils and the ability to accumulate high sugars and strawberries of Georgian grape – Saperavi result in harmonious, soft, velvety, cheerful tones characterized by these wines and high specific characteristics.
Kakheti has created for centuries and has established a native type of table wine, which is quite different from the existing types of wines. It is the only dry original wine in the world. The wine obtained by this rule is distinguished by high extrusion, with high content of phenolic compounds and tannins, pleasant bouquet, jerous aroma and taste; And most importantly, Kakhetian type of wine is rich in biologically active ingredients for human health.